Reform of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

Programme description

Title: Reform of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Viet Nam
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) 
Country: Socialist Republic of Viet Nam
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA)
Overall term: 2017 to 2020



Viet Nam’s economy has developed rapidly in the past two decades. Annual growth rates of 7 per cent have led to dynamic economic development which is reflected in Viet Nam’s transformation from one of the world’s poorest nations to a lower middle income country. This achievement is being put at risk by the increasing consumption of resources, environmental pollution and a significant shortage of skilled labour, estimated at just 22 per cent of the national workforce. The Vietnamese TVET system and competencies and skills of graduates do not yet fulfil the requirements of the industry. This is caused by a lack of cooperation between TVET institutes and the business sector, outdated training programmes and insufficient practice-oriented training, leading to the weak image of vocational training. Therefore, many young people and their parents prefer university studies over TVET.


Technical and vocational education and training to support a sustainable green economic development of Viet Nam is improved.



The programme “Reform of TVET in Viet Nam” cooperates with the Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (DVET) under the Ministry of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA) in the institutional and legal TVET reform process, to improve the quality and demand-orientation of training offers and the development of Centres of Excellence (CoEs). The programme follows a multi-level approach: reform initiatives are piloted at TVET institutes and experiences and lessons learnt are integrated into the TVET system. Policy advice includes support for DVET on the development of the legal framework and regulations concerning cooperation with the business sector, for instance, in the qualification and certification of in-company trainers, greening vocational training, the development of TVET institutes, and quality assurance.

The programme cooperates with twelve TVET institutes that have received modern technical equipment through German Financial Cooperation (FC). International technical experts advise Vietnamese teachers and managers of the TVET institutes on technical and organisational issues. The institutes are being strengthened in their efforts to improve the quality of their services. Cooperation with the business sector is promoted in the development of demand-oriented training programmes, qualifying in-company trainers and examiners, introducing and improving structured in-company training, and in establishing industry boards at the TVET institutes. Furthermore, the programme supports the development, improvement and integration of green elements in vocational training. 

The support for CoEs - TVET institutes providing high-quality, demand-oriented training - is based on international standards in the fields of mechanics, mechatronics, electrotechnics and wastewater treatment. The CoEs take over additional functions in the TVET system, such as further training for teachers and managers from other TVET institutes as well as for the business sector. Topics such as digitalisation and Industry 4.0 are addressed via Public Private Partnerships (PPP) with world leading companies.

Gender-sensitive communication activities are implemented to raise public awareness about TVET. Open Days, Girls’ and Boys’ days are organised at TVET institutes and scholarships for women and people with disabilities in technical trades are being provided. Skills competitions and Viet Nam’s participation in the WorldSkills competition are supported.


  • More than 160 trained experts and managers from DVET and MoLISA are applying their newly acquired competencies to reform the TVET system and to develop the legal framework 
  • 123 TVET teachers from supported CoEs have received further training, improving their theoretical knowledge, as well as their practical, pedagogical, and assessment skills
  • Every year 22,000 new trainees benefit from improved training programmes at supported TVET institutes, more than 80 per cent of them found jobs related to their training with stable and decent incomes six months after graduation

This programme comprises the following components

Further information