Integrated climate change adaptation strategies in Grenada
Title: Integrated climate change adaptation strategies
Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) within the scope of the International Climate Initiative (IKI)
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Education, Human Resource Development & the Environment
Overall term: 2013 to 2019
As an island state in the Caribbean, Grenada and its sister islands Carriacou and Petite Martinique are bracing for an increase in extreme weather events and rising sea levels brought about by climate change. The island is extremely vulnerable: in 2004, for example, Hurricane Ivan destroyed almost 90 per cent of residential buildings in addition to tourist facilities and agricultural land. Stronger tropical storms caused by an increase in the temperature of the ocean's surface are anticipated.
The mainstay of the Grenadian economy is tourism, which is being jeopardised by the rising sea level, protracted droughts, beach erosion, loss of coastal areas and flooding. An increase in the sea level of half a metre would destroy up to 83 per cent of the beaches. Much of the infrastructure including ports, power stations, roads and many homes are also at risk.
The population and ecosystems are more resilient to climate-related risks.
The pilot programme pursues an integrated, multisectoral approach, linking activities at local and national level. For example, the National Climate Change Committee is receiving advice on developing systematic risk analyses to identify susceptible coastal zones in the country and to increase their resilience to climate change. A community fund provides direct support to the population for small-scale adaptation measures. The programme is also promoting efforts that will enable Grenada to access climate finance in the medium and long term and to share information about experience in the region. It is made up of four components:
- mainstreaming climate change and adaptation issues in national planning processes
- integrated water resource and coastal zone management
- community-based climate change adaptation
- climate financing, PR work and knowledge management.
GIZ is implementing the programme in cooperation with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Results achieved so far
- After a three-year break, the National Climate Change Committee adopted a new structure in 2014 and has assumed responsibility for coordinating the activities of the Government, the private sector and non-governmental organisations.
- The Government, the private sector, the academic community and non-governmental organisations have worked together to draft a policy for coastal zone management in Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique
- More than 60 representatives of various ministries, the private sector and non-governmental organisations have been trained in the structured climate risk analysis of the Caribbean Climate Online Risk and Adaptation Tool (CCORAL).
- Grenada presented its first National Adaptation Plan at the 23rd United Nations Climate Change Conference in Marrakech in 2016. The plan forms the basis of national transformation processes and is designed to encourage international donors to provide financing.
- The current national Growth and Poverty Reduction strategy has been revised to include climate change aspects and now supports a climate-sensitive poverty reduction policy.
- A new logo is being used for all of the Government's climate adaptation activities. Since the logo was launched in 2014, a large number of newspaper articles have been published dealing with climate change adaptation. The awareness campaign is also targeting younger people with a climate change song circulated as a music video.
- 'How to become a climate champion’: Illustrative material has been produced to teach primary schoolchildren about climate change.
- In the interests of coastal protection, a comprehensive monitoring system has been put in place to conduct beach surveys, the necessary equipment has been procured and training sessions have been held. In addition, 1,900 mangrove seedlings have been planted in north-eastern Grenada. This afforestation measure is being accompanied by activities to promote alternative sources of income, such as beekeeping, ecotourism and sustainable coal mining. A joint committee made up of representatives of the local population and the authorities has been set up.
- With assistance from the programme, a Green Climate Fund project has been devised for climate change adaptation measures in the water sector. The programme has advised the Grenadian Government on developing resources and skills in this context.
- A pilot plant for rainwater harvesting went into operation in Blaize in 2016. Using a storage tank with a capacity of 190 cubic metres, the community’s households are now directly connected to a drinking water supply system for the first time.
- Every two months an information leaflet provides farmers with relevant meteorological information and weather forecasts with a view to fostering climate-sensitive farming.
- Pilot measures on climate-smart agriculture have been carried out to train more than 60 government representatives and farmers. Here, traditional approaches are used to optimise water use and to propagate environmentally responsible composting and use of fertilisers. Climate-smart farming is firmly established in the Ministry of Agriculture's Three-Year Plan.
- In collaboration with a German company, Ökobit GmbH, the first of ten biogas systems has been installed, using organic waste from pig breeding. In addition to generating energy, this produces natural fertiliser and reduces environmental and marine pollution.