Thailand Clean Mobility Programme (Thailand Component of Global Project TRANSfer III)
Title: TRANSfer III - Scaling Up Climate Friendly Transport– Thailand component
Commissioned by: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
Lead executing agency: Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and planning (OTP) as part of the Ministry of Transport
Overall term: 2017 to 2021
Transport accounts for 27 per cent of energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide. While other sectors start to show decreasing trends, transport emissions remain to show increasing trends. According to the 2017 Transport Outlook, CO2 emissions could increase 60 per cent by 2050.
Thailand in the context of the TRANSfer project
The Thai Government has pledged a 20 per cent reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 2030 – 25 per cent with international support. One third is attributed to the transport sector. Due to rapidly increasing GHG emissions from transport, dramatically rising air pollution in Thai cities, and losses in productivity due to traffic congestion, the TRANSfer programme supports the Thai Government on the creation of the Thai Clean Mobility Programme (TCMP). The programme addresses the two major challenges for a shift towards sustainable transport in Thai cities: a low-quality public transport service based on old vehicles with high specific emissions (25 years on average) and a rapid increase in private motorisation (300,000 new vehicles). To do so, the TCMP employs a Push and Pull Approach, that makes public transport more attractive by improving connectivity, reducing fares and improving technology (Pull), and disincentivises car travel by internalising road usage costs and environmental externalities by means of a congestion charge (CC) (Push), inducing a shift from private to public modes in a sustained manner. Experience from other cities show a reduction of car trips by 20 to 70 per cent and an increase public transportation ridership by 20 to 40 per cent). The revenues of the CC will feed into the Clean Mobility Fund, which creates a continuous significant funding source for sustainable urban transport projects in Thai cities (Transport-Finances-Transport).
The concept of the Thai Clean Transport Programme including the technical design as well as a financing mechanism is finalised. Funding sources for the implementation of the programme have been identified.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) was commissioned by The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMU) with the implementation of the project TRANSfer III - Facilitating the development of ambitious transport mitigation actions.
The TRANSfer project has the objective to increase the efforts of developing countries and emerging economies to foster climate-friendly transport with international support. The project follows a multi-stakeholder approach and acts as a “mitigation action preparation facility”. To achieve its objective TRANSfer focuses on the following four work packages (WP):
- At an international level the project supports multi-donor initiatives for climate-friendly transport in emerging and developing countries. The initiatives allow OECD-countries to bundle and channel financing towards mitigation measures in the transport sector and leverage their impact (WP1).
- The project generates standardised support packages (toolkits) for selected mitigation measures (WP2).
- This allows partner countries and multi-donor initiatives to prepare mitigation measures faster and in a higher quality towards implementation and finance readiness (WP3).
- The support and participation in international learning processes through the development of knowledge products, organisation of conferences and trainings leads to a dissemination of best practice and increases levels of ambition (WP4).
In Thailand, TRANSfer focuses on the establishment of a National Urban Mobility Programme (NUMP) – the Thai Clean Mobility Programme (TCMP). In order to design the programme, the Thai Government has established three inter-ministerial working groups for each of the programme’s pillars to work jointly on the detailed design:
1) Congestion Charging
2) Bus sector reform and modernisation
3) Clean Transport Fund
GIZ supports the working groups with background studies and capacity building.